Wappen china

wappen china

Das Wappen der Volksrepublik China wurde im Jahr angenommen. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Beschreibung; 2 Symbolik; 3 Geschichte; 4 Literatur; 5 Weblinks. Wappen von China. China-Wappen. Auswandern aktuell – Länder Infos für Auswanderer und Reisende sowie Ratgeber. Immer mehr Deutsche denken über . Die Flagge der Volksrepublik China wurde erstmals am 1. Oktober Das Wappen der Volksrepublik Chinas · Die chinesische Nationalhymne · Die Flagge der.

Wappen China Video

National Anthem of China - "义勇军进行曲" (Remake)

china wappen -

Eine weitere, sehr bekannte Tierart ist der Chinese lat. Die meisten Chinesen wissen bis heute nicht , dass dieser Krieg je stattfand. Diese bietet ausgestorbenen Tierarten ein zuhause. Wer könnte schon auf die Idee kommen, Bauwerke zu schaffen, die man aus dem All sehen kann und das zu einer Zeit, als die Vorstellung, höher als die Götter zu fliegen, genauso absurd war, als wenn man gegenüber den heutigen Machthabern von freien Wahlen reden würde. Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China: Public domain Public domain false false. Doch aufgrund dieser "Sonnenscheinpolitik" wurde China immer mehr gehasst und verabscheut. In Pintan, wo ca. General war damals moy Son Gechiwingisching der

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Army Patch Prismatic Embroidered Wappen. Free samples can be provided, but shipping and taxes paid by the buyer. We can provide design, new development and the comprehensive service.

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Popular Iron-on twill embroidery wappen patch. Embroidery Patches Custom Embroidered Patch. Easy Mountain Pattern Embroidery Wappens in wholesale.

Whether you are camping, fishing or rock climbing Wanzelong patches can create a custom patch for you.

We can help you create the perfect custom patch for the perfect outdoor activity. Because our factory focuses on taking our customers seriously, we will offer you the highest quality custom patches, motorcycle patches, chenille patches , woven patches, biker patches etc.

We have 13 years of experience in development and production of embroidery and labels. We have established long-term cooperation with German and Japanese customers.

Friends from all circles are welcome to come for visiting,guiding and bussiness discussions. High quality and competitive price 4.

Sample is free when actual order 6. Our workshop equipped with 20 sets of automatic injection productionlines,4 high-frequency production line and other advanced equipments.

Attend the Canton Fair each year 4. Diversification of product range 5. Fast delivery, quality assurance,have SGS certification 6.

We can meet the customer demand,OEM is welcome. Embroidery patch,badge, wappen ,emblem,logo. Environmental dye ink round eagle embroidery wappen.

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Weil die Chinesen offiziell kommunistisch sind und sich niemand an den Milliardären in der Parteispitze zu stören scheint, muss davon ausgegangen werden, dass alle Chinesen einfach so stinkreich sind, dass es ihnen am Arsch vorbeigeht, wenn jemand noch ein paar Milliönchen mehr hat als man selbst. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Weil die Chinesen offiziell kommunistisch sind und sich niemand an den Milliardären in der Parteispitze zu stören scheint, muss davon ausgegangen werden, dass alle Chinesen einfach so stinkreich sind, dass es ihnen am Arsch vorbeigeht, wenn jemand noch ein paar Milliönchen mehr hat als man selbst. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Im Westen lagen mal ausgedehnte Wüsten aus schönem feinkörnigen Sand , ideal, sie an Millionen von Kindersandkästen auf der ganzen Welt zu verhökern. Laut der absolut freien und vor allem demokratischen chinesischen Regierung und der chinesischen Medien ist hier am 4. Cookies helfen uns bei der Bereitstellung von Stupidedia. Sehr sehr viele Menschen. Flaggen der Staaten von: Länder, die so unwichtig sind, dass es bisher noch niemand für nötig hielt, einen Artikel über sie zu verfassen: Nach der Einführung des, wie die Chinesen ihn nennen, " Masoschismus " wurde eine Völkerbewegung aufgebaut. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Leider haben wir den Namen des chinesischen Geldes vergessen.

Wappen china -

September auf Befehl Mao Zedongs bekanntgegeben. Diese im Südwesten gelegene Gegend besteht nur aus Geröll, Meter hohen Eis und Felsformationen, Gras mit Schafen drauf und das eine oder andere leere Kloster, sodass Marktwirtschaft noch viel weniger reizvoll ist als der Sand. Das Wappen der Volksrepublik China chinesisch: Eine weitere, sehr bekannte Tierart ist der Chinese lat. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Pambansang Sagisag ng Republikang Bayan ng Tsina. Flaggen der Staaten von: Die chinesische Politik ist wie bekannt eine der zensurärmsten und freiesten auf der Welt. Sie sollte rechteckig sein, ein Seitenverhältnis von 2: Klicke auf einen Zeitpunkt, um diese Version Beste Spielothek in Felixdorf finden laden. Das wollte die EU unbedingt verhindern. National Emblem of the People's Republic of China. Reverted to version as of Durch Vergleiche der eingesandten Vorschläge entschied man sich für einen Entwurf, den die Professoren der Qinghua-Universität und des Zentralen Instituts für bildende Kunst ausarbeiteten. Wozu diese dient, kann nur vermutet werden; vermutlich wurde gry w maszyny sizzling hot gebaut, um El Poperzo von China fernzuhalten, was aber kläglich misslang. Bookofradeluxe Entstehung des Staatswappens wird folgende Anekdote überliefert: Auch wenn auf der Flagge der Volksrepublik China nun keine Drachen mehr erscheinen, sind sie kulturell auch heute noch sehr bedeutsam und gelten sowohl in China selbst als auch international als Symbol der chinesischen Nation.

china wappen -

Nach heutiger Erkenntnis fragen sich manche Politiker in Beijing , ob es nicht besser gewesen wäre, die Atomtests im Staatsgebiet des ehemaligen Tibets durchzuführen. Juni nichts passiert. Article 5 of the Implementing Regulations of the Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China defines news on current affairs as the mere facts or happenings reported by the mass media, such as newspapers, periodicals and radio and television stations. Traditionell spricht man von fünf Herrschern, fünf Farben, fünf Elementen, fünf Tugenden, fünf Sorten und historisch von fünf Teilen Chinas: Paradoxerweise nach dem lateinischen Alphabet geordnet. Weil sich die Chinesen zu schnell vermehren und einheimische Tierarten, wie die Tibeter oder die Pandas bedrohen, wurden einige von ihnen eingeschläfert. Das wollte die EU unbedingt verhindern. Leider gibt es dort nur noch riesige glasige erstarrte Pfützen, die im dunklen leuchten. Die Tierart der Chinesen wurde von der Roten Liste gestrichen und es wurden Chinesenfallen aufgestellt. You can skispringen vierschanzentournee 2019 detail with all three of our patch types. Attend the Canton Fair each year 4. Retrieved 2 December Further exacerbating the problem were differences in vocabulary particularly nouns and writing systems, gladbach champions league tabelle mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore that developed through their relative lack of communications during much of the 20th century [ citation needed ]. Retrieved 1 November The Chinese democracy movementsocial activists, and some members of the Communist Party of China have all identified the need for social and political reform. Reset share links Resets both viewing and editing links coeditors shown below are not affected. Imperial Chinese Military History. Archived from the original on 9 September Please improve it by verifying the claims made and epiphone casino peerless inline citations. In particular, Mexico is years, Jamaica is 95 years, Colombia is 80 years, Guatemala and Samoa are 75 years, Switzerland and the United States are 70 years, and Venezuela is 60 years. University of California Press. However, rapid growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment, [] [] and caused major social displacement. Retrieved 27 June

We can provide design, new development and the comprehensive service. Of course, we will also provide the cmpetitive price since we have our own accessory factory.

Custom embroidery iron on wappen patches for clothing accessory. We can create and design any patch according to the needs of our customers in terms of shapes, sizes and colors.

Just send us the artwork that you want to create into a customized patch, and we'll do the rest. At Shenzhen Skywing, we guarantee our customized embroidered patches to be the highest grade.

Popular Iron-on twill embroidery wappen patch. Embroidery Patches Custom Embroidered Patch. Easy Mountain Pattern Embroidery Wappens in wholesale.

Whether you are camping, fishing or rock climbing Wanzelong patches can create a custom patch for you. We can help you create the perfect custom patch for the perfect outdoor activity.

Because our factory focuses on taking our customers seriously, we will offer you the highest quality custom patches, motorcycle patches, chenille patches , woven patches, biker patches etc.

We have 13 years of experience in development and production of embroidery and labels. We have established long-term cooperation with German and Japanese customers.

Friends from all circles are welcome to come for visiting,guiding and bussiness discussions. High quality and competitive price 4. Sample is free when actual order 6.

Our workshop equipped with 20 sets of automatic injection productionlines,4 high-frequency production line and other advanced equipments.

Attend the Canton Fair each year 4. Diversification of product range 5. Fast delivery, quality assurance,have SGS certification 6.

We can meet the customer demand,OEM is welcome. To avoid this near- forking of the project, starting around January , the Chinese Wikipedia began providing a server -side mechanism to automatically convert different characters and vocabulary items into the user's local ones, according to the user's preference settings, which may be set to one of two settings that convert the script only, or one of six settings that also take into account regional vocabulary differences:.

Automatic conversion between simplified and traditional Chinese. Conversion is done through a set of character conversion tables that may be edited by administrators.

To provide an alternative means to harmonize the characters when the server-side converters fail to work properly, a special template was created to manually convert characters and article titles in one specific page.

Furthermore, page title conversion is used for automatic page redirection. Those articles previously named in different characters or different translations have been merged, and can be reached by means of both Traditional and Simplified Chinese titles.

According to a survey conducted between April and March , edits to the Chinese Wikipedia were Many editing controversies arise from current and historical political events in Chinese-speaking regions, such as the political status of Taiwan , independent movement and autonomy movement of Hong Kong , Tiananmen Square protests of , issues of the Communist Party of China and Kuomintang.

Speedy deletion works in a similar way to the policy on the English Wikipedia , but proposed deletion is unavailable. This register is largely associated with the grammar and vocabulary of Standard Chinese , the official spoken language of mainland China, Taiwan, and Singapore but not exclusively of Hong Kong and Macau, which largely use Cantonese.

The varieties of Chinese are a diverse group encompassing many regional varieties, most of which are mutually unintelligible and often divided up into several larger dialect groups, such as Wu including Shanghainese and Suzhounese , Min Nan of which Taiwanese is a notable dialect , and Cantonese.

In regions that speak non-Mandarin languages or regional Mandarin dialects, the Vernacular Chinese standard largely corresponding to Standard Chinese is nevertheless used exclusively as the Chinese written standard; this written standard differs sharply from the local dialects in vocabulary and grammar , and is often read in local pronunciation but preserving the vocabulary and grammar of Standard Chinese.

After the founding of Wikipedia, many users of non-Mandarin Chinese varieties began to ask for the right to have Wikipedia editions in non-Mandarin varieties as well.

However, they also met with significant opposition, based on the fact that Mandarin-based Vernacular Chinese is the only form used in scholarly or academic contexts.

Some also proposed the implementation of an automatic conversion program similar to that between Simplified and Traditional Chinese; however, others pointed out that although conversion between Simplified and Traditional Chinese consists mainly of glyph and sometimes vocabulary substitutions, different regional varieties of Chinese differ so sharply in grammar, syntax , and semantics that it was unrealistic to implement an automatic conversion program.

Objections notwithstanding, it was determined that these Chinese varieties were sufficiently different from Standard Chinese and had a sufficiently large number of followers to justify the creation of six Wikipedias for different varieties.

Finally, requests were also made, and granted, to create a Classical Chinese Wikipedia zh-classical: The People's Republic of China and internet service providers in Mainland China have adopted a practice of blocking contentious Internet sites in mainland China , and Wikimedia sites have been blocked at least three times in its history.

On May 19, , Chinese Wikipedia was blocked again within mainland China. The first block lasted from June 2-June 21, It began when access to the Chinese Wikipedia from Beijing was blocked on the 15th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square protests of Possibly related to this, on May 31 an article from the IDG News Service was published, [14] discussing the Chinese Wikipedia's treatment of the protests.

The Chinese Wikipedia also has articles related to Taiwan independence , written by contributors from Taiwan and elsewhere.

A few days after the initial block of the Chinese Wikipedia, all Wikimedia Foundation sites were blocked in mainland China.

In response to the blocks, two moderators prepared an appeal to lift the block and asked their regional internet service provider to submit it. All Wikimedia sites were unblocked between June 17 and June 21, One month later, the first Chinese Wikipedian moderators' meeting was held in Beijing on July 25, The first block had an effect on the vitality of the Chinese Wikipedia, which suffered sharp dips in various indicators, such as the number of new users, the number of new articles, and the number of edits.

In some cases, it took anywhere from 6 to 12 months in order to regain the stats from May On the other hand, on today's site, some of the articles are put under protection which may last for a month or more without any actions.

The second and less serious outage lasted between September 23 and September 27, During this 4-day period, access to Wikipedia was erratic or unavailable to some users in mainland China — this block was not comprehensive and some users in mainland China were never affected.

The exact reason for the block is a mystery. Chinese Wikipedians once again prepared a written appeal to regional ISPs, but the block was lifted before the appeal was actually sent, for an unknown reason.

The third block began on October 19, , and there was no indication as to whether this block was temporary or permanent, or what the reasons or causes for this block were.

According to the status page currently maintained on the Chinese Wikipedia, the Florida and Korea servers were blocked, whereas the Paris and Amsterdam servers were not.

Dozens of editors from across mainland China reported that they could only access Wikipedia using proxy servers, although there were isolated reports that some users could access Wikipedia without using a proxy.

Most Chinese people were not able to connect to the site at all. During October and November , it first appeared that the site was unblocked again.

Many conflicting reports came from news outlets, bloggers, and Wikipedians, reporting a possible partial or full unblocking of Wikipedia.

Some reports indicated a complete unblock; others suggested that some sensitive topics remained blocked, and yet others suggested that the Chinese Wikipedia was blocked whereas other-language versions were not.

From November 17 onwards, the complete block was once again in place. On June 15, , China lifted the block for several articles, only to then block an increasing number of articles.

On 30 August , all blocks were lifted, but then a block was placed on Wikipedia for all languages on 31 August Connections to the Chinese Wikipedia were completely blocked as of April 6, Any attempt to access the Chinese Wikipedia resulted in a second ban on all Wikimedia websites.

However, users were able to log on to the Chinese Wikipedia using https. All other languages were accessible, but politically sensitive searches such as Tibet were still blocked.

On 3 July , the government lifted the ban on accessing the Chinese Wikipedia. However, some parts were still inaccessible. On July 31, , BBC reported that the Chinese Wikipedia had been unblocked that day in China; it had still been blocked the previous day.

This came within the context of foreign journalists arriving in Beijing to report on the upcoming Olympic Games , and websites like the Chinese edition of the BBC were being unblocked following talks between the International Olympic Committee and the Games' Chinese organizers.

On May 19, both the encrypted and unencrypted Chinese-language versions of Wikipedia were blocked. In December , the International Herald Tribune Asia-Pacific [18] published an article saying that sensitive topics received subdued treatment on the Chinese Wikipedia.

But on sensitive questions of China's modern history or on hot-button issues, the Chinese version diverges so dramatically from its English counterpart that it sometimes reads as if it were approved by the censors themselves.

For some, the Chinese version of Wikipedia was intended as just such a resource, but its tame approach to sensitive topics has sparked a fierce debate in the world of online mavens over its objectivity and thoroughness.

On the evidence of entries like this, for the moment, the fight over editorial direction of Wikipedia in Chinese is being won by enthusiasts who practice self-censorship.

French, titled "Wikipedia lays bare two versions of China's past. The Manchu Qing dynasty , then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui , overthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.

The Qing dynasty , which lasted from until , was the last imperial dynasty of China. Its conquest of the Ming — cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically.

China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British [93] under the Treaty of Nanking , the first of the Unequal Treaties.

The Qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, especially in the White Lotus Rebellion , the failed Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southern China in the s and s and the Dungan Revolt —77 in the northwest.

The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the s and s.

In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of —79 , in which between 9 and 13 million people died.

The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of — further weakened the dynasty. Although Cixi sponsored a program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of —12 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.

In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Army , he was forced to abdicate and re-establish the republic. After Yuan Shikai's death in , China was politically fragmented.

Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory. Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died.

China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained. The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war.

Constitutional rule was established in , but because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China.

Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in with the Communist Party in control of most of mainland China , and the Kuomintang retreating offshore, reducing the ROC's territory to only Taiwan , Hainan , and their surrounding islands.

The regime consolidated its popularity among the peasants through land reform, which resulted in the execution of between 1 and 2 million landlords.

After Mao's death, the Gang of Four was quickly arrested and held responsible for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution.

Deng Xiaoping took power in , and instituted significant economic reforms. The Communist Party loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in favor of working contracted to households.

This marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open-market environment. In , the violent suppression of student protests in Tiananmen Square brought sanctions against the Chinese government from various countries.

However, rapid growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment, [] [] and caused major social displacement. Preparations for a decadal Communist Party leadership change in were marked by factional disputes and political scandals.

China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south.

The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers , the third- and sixth-longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard.

China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe route — the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Road s.

China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast width. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea , there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains , while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate.

Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River.

Other major rivers include the Xi , Mekong , Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas.

High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert.

The world's highest point, Mount Everest 8,m , lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons , which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer.

In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist.

A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts , particularly the Gobi Desert. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people.

China is one of 17 megadiverse countries , [] lying in two of the world's major ecozones: By one measure, China has over 34, species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia.

China is home to at least species of mammals the third-highest such number in the world , [] 1, species of birds eighth , [] species of reptiles seventh [] and species of amphibians seventh.

At least animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine.

China has over 32, species of vascular plants, [] and is home to a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bear , along with over bird species.

In higher montane stands of juniper and yew , the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons. Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support as many as , species of flora.

In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution. In China, heavy metals also cause environmental pollution.

Heavy metal pollution is an inorganic chemical hazard, which is mainly caused by lead Pb , chromium Cr , arsenic As , cadmium Cd , mercury Hg , zinc Zn , copper Cu , cobalt Co , and nickel Ni.

Heavy metal pollutants mainly come from mining, sewage irrigation, the manufacturing of metal-containing products, and other related production activities.

High level of heavy metal exposure can also cause permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities, including reading and learning disabilities, behavioral problems, hearing loss, attention problems, and disruption in the development of visual and motor function.

According to the data of a national census of pollution, China has more than 1. The total volume of discharged heavy metals in the waste water, waste gas and solid wastes are around , tons each year from — The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area [] after Russia , and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States.

China's constitution states that The People's Republic of China "is a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants," and that the state organs "apply the principle of democratic centralism.

The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist , [] with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet , freedom of the press , freedom of assembly , the right to have children , free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion.

The President is the titular head of state , elected by the National People's Congress. The Premier is the head of government , presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions.

There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels.

Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and government corruption.

The People's Republic of China is divided into 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , each with a designated minority group; four municipalities ; and two special administrative regions SARs which enjoy a degree of political autonomy.

These 31 provincial-level divisions can be collectively referred to as " mainland China ", a term which usually excludes two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau.

The PRC has diplomatic relations with countries and maintains embassies in Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries; it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition.

Under its interpretation of the One-China policy , Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China.

Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan, [] especially in the matter of armament sales.

Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai 's Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence , and is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences.

In recent decades, China has played an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbours.

In , the United States Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" PNTR with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries.

China has the second biggest economy in the world. According to Bloomberg News , China is planning to reduce the average tariff rate on imports from its trading partners by October In July , China had also cut import tariffs on approximately 1, consumer products so as to open up the economy of the country.

Ever since its establishment after the second Chinese Civil War , the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China ROC , a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory.

These claims are controversial because of the complicated Cross-Strait relations , with the PRC treating the One-China policy as one of its most important diplomatic principles.

In addition to Taiwan, China is also involved in other international territorial disputes. Since the s, China has been involved in negotiations to resolve its disputed land borders, including a disputed border with India and an undefined border with Bhutan.

China is additionally involved in multilateral disputes over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal.

China is regularly hailed as a potential new superpower , with certain commentators citing its rapid economic progress, growing military might, very large population, and increasing international influence as signs that it will play a prominent global role in the 21st century.

The Chinese democracy movement , social activists, and some members of the Communist Party of China have all identified the need for social and political reform.

While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the s, political freedom is still tightly restricted.

The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speech , freedom of the press , the right to a fair trial , freedom of religion , universal suffrage , and property rights.

However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state.

Rural migrants to China's cities often find themselves treated as second-class citizens by the hukou household registration system, which controls access to state benefits.

A number of foreign governments, foreign press agencies and NGOs also routinely criticize China's human rights record , alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without trial, forced abortions , [] forced confessions, torture , restrictions of fundamental rights, [] [] and excessive use of the death penalty.

Falun Gong was first taught publicly in In , when there were 70 million practitioners, [] the persecution of Falun Gong began, resulting in mass arrests, extralegal detention, and reports of torture and deaths in custody.

The Chinese government has responded to foreign criticism by arguing that the right to subsistence and economic development is a prerequisite to other types of human rights, and that the notion of human rights should take into account a country's present level of economic development.

According to the Global Slavery Index, an estimated 3,, people are enslaved in modern-day China, or 0.

Prisoners are not paid at all, and need their families to send money to them. Prisoners who refuse to work are beaten, and some are beaten to death.

Many of the prisoners are political or religious dissidents, and some are recognized internationally as prisoners of conscience.

Laogai in Chinese means forced labour and reform. A Chinese president said that they want to see two products coming out of the prisons: Harry Wu, himself a former prisoner of the Laogai, filmed undercover footage of the Laogai, and was charged with stealing state secrets.

For this, Harry Wu was sentenced to 15 years in prison, but only served 66 days before being deported to the United States.

Office of the Secretary of Defense — argue that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget.

As a recognized nuclear weapons state, China is considered both a major regional military power and a potential military superpower.

China has made significant progress in modernising its air force in recent decades, purchasing Russian fighter jets such as the Sukhoi Su , and also manufacturing its own modern fighters, most notably the Chengdu J , J and the Shenyang J , J , J , and J In August , China tested its first hypersonic flight.

China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline.

The number of billionaires increased in China from to From its founding in until late , the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy.

Following Mao's death in and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution , Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule.

Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones SEZs.

Inefficient state-owned enterprises SOEs were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses.

Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership, [] and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism.

Since economic liberalization began in , China has been among the world's fastest-growing economies, [] relying largely on investment- and export-led growth.

Between and , China's economic growth rate was equivalent to all of the G7 countries' growth combined. In recent years, government claimed growth numbers have come under increased scrutiny, with both non-Chinese financial and economic observes as well as Chinese government officials claiming the government has been inflating its economic output.

In the online realm, China's e-commerce industry has grown more slowly than the EU and the US, with a significant period of development occurring from around onwards.

China ranked 29th in the Global Competitiveness Index in , [] although it is only ranked th among the countries measured in the Index of Economic Freedom.

Following the global financial crisis, China realized the dependency on the US Dollar and the weakness of the international monetary system.

China was once a world leader in science and technology up until the Ming dynasty. Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions , such as papermaking , printing , the compass , and gunpowder the Four Great Inventions , became widespread across East Asia, the Middle East and later to Europe.

Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers. After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement.

After the Communists came to power in , efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union , in which scientific research was part of central planning.

China is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, mathematics and engineering ; in , China graduated over 10, Ph.

The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active, and is a major source of national pride. In , China's first space station module, Tiangong-1 , was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large manned station by the early s.

China currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1 billion users by February By , China hosts more than twice as much national bandwidth potential than the U.

China Telecom alone serves more than 50 million broadband subscribers, while China Unicom serves more than 40 million.

China is developing its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou , which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in , [] and is planned to offer global coverage by Since the late s, China's national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways.

By October , there were 81 such bridges and tunnels. China has the world's largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production.

Auto sales in exceeded China's railways , which are state-owned , are among the busiest in the world , handling a quarter of the world's rail traffic volume on only 6 percent of the world's tracks in The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday, when the world's largest annual human migration takes place.

China's high-speed rail HSR system started construction in the early s. Today it has over 19, kilometers 11, miles of dedicated lines alone, a length that exceeds rest of the world's high-speed rail tracks combined, [] making it the longest HSR network in the world.

Since , the growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated. There were approximately airports in with around planned by More than two-thirds of the airports under construction worldwide in were in China, [] and Boeing expects that China's fleet of active commercial aircraft in China will grow from 1, in to 5, in In , Beijing's Capital Airport ranked second in the world by passenger traffic it was 26th in Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution.

The national census of recorded the population of the People's Republic of China as approximately 1,,, Although a middle-income country by Western standards, China's rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions of its people out of poverty since In , the urban unemployment rate of China was about 4.

Given concerns about population growth, China implemented a two-child limit during the s, and, in , began to advocate for an even stricter limit of one child per family.

Beginning in the mid s, however, given the unpopularity of the strict limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, particularly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a "1.

The next major loosening of the policy was enacted in December , allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child.

According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little effect on population growth [] or the size of the total population.

Their own counterfactual model of fertility decline without such restrictions implies that China averted more than million births between and , a number which may reach one billion by given all the lost descendants of births averted during the era of fertility restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the great bulk of that reduction.

The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the sex ratio at birth. China officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Han Chinese , who constitute about There are as many as living languages in China.

Across northeastern and northwestern China , local ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu , Mongolian and several Turkic languages: Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea.

Sarikoli , the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang , is an Indo-European language. Taiwanese aborigines , including a small population on the mainland, speak Austronesian languages.

Standard Mandarin , a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect , is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds.

Chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years. They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing.

In , the government introduced simplified characters , which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China. Chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system.

Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an Indic script. Uyghur is most commonly written in Persian alphabet based Uyghur Arabic alphabet. The Mongolian script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet.

Zhuang uses both an official Latin alphabet script and a traditional Chinese character script. China has urbanized significantly in recent decades.

China has over cities with a population of over one million, [] including the seven megacities cities with a population of over 10 million of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Wuhan.

The large " floating populations " of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult; [] the figures below include only long-term residents.

Since , compulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary school , which together last for nine years.

In , 27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education. In February , the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees.

In , around The National Health and Family Planning Commission , together with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population.

At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign , which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases.

Diseases such as cholera , typhoid and scarlet fever , which were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaign. After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in , the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because of better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes.

Healthcare in China became mostly privatized , and experienced a significant rise in quality. As of [update] , the average life expectancy at birth in China is 75 years, [] and the infant mortality rate is 12 per thousand.

Freedom of religion is guaranteed by China's constitution, although religious organizations that lack official approval can be subject to state persecution.

Religious affairs and issues in the country are overseen by the State Administration for Religious Affairs.

Over the millennia, Chinese civilization has been influenced by various religious movements. The " three teachings ", including Confucianism , Taoism , and Buddhism Chinese Buddhism , historically have a significant role in shaping Chinese culture, [] [] enriching a theological and spiritual framework which harkens back to the early Shang and Zhou dynasty.

China is home to many of the world's tallest religious statues , including the tallest of all, the Spring Temple Buddha in Henan.

Clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions on "religion" and the unorganized, diffusive nature of Chinese religious traditions.

Scholars note that in China there is no clear boundary between three teachings religions, Buddhism, Taoism and local folk religious practice. Significant faiths specifically connected to certain ethnic groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui people , also of Uyghur , Kazakh , Kyrgyz and other peoples in the Northwest China.

Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism and conservative philosophies. For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations , which have their origins in the Han dynasty.

Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective. The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial order, but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals.

They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism , and the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state.

Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism ".

Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera , [] were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time.

Access to foreign media remains heavily restricted. Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society.

With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, [] [] and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide.

Chinese literature is based on the literature of the Zhou dynasty. Li Bai and Du Fu opened the forking ways for the poetic circles through romanticism and realism respectively.

In the wake of the New Culture Movement after the end of the Qing dynasty, Chinese literature embarked on a new era with written vernacular Chinese for ordinary citizens.

Hu Shih and Lu Xun were pioneers in modern literature. Mo Yan , a xungen literature author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety, in which the most influential are known as the "Eight Major Cuisines", including Sichuan , Cantonese , Jiangsu , Shandong , Fujian , Hunan , Anhui , and Zhejiang cuisines.

The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk , remain as a popular source of protein.

Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northern China.

Numerous offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food , have emerged in the nations that play host to the Chinese diaspora.

China has become a prime sports destination worldwide. China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world. Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture, with morning exercises such as qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan widely practiced, [] and commercial gyms and private fitness clubs are gaining popularity across the country.

China has participated in the Olympic Games since , although it has only participated as the PRC since China hosted the Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 51 gold medals — the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year.

Beijing and its nearby city Zhangjiakou of Hebei province will also collaboratively host the Olympic Winter Games , which will make Beijing the first city in the world to hold both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the People's Republic of China. For the Republic of China, see Taiwan. For other uses, see China disambiguation.

For other uses, see PRC disambiguation. State in East Asia. Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Mongolian Uyghur Tibetan Zhuang various others [3]. History of China and Timeline of Chinese history. Dynasties in Chinese history.

Republic of China — History of the People's Republic of China. Environmental issues in China. Water resources of China and Energy policy of China.

List of current Chinese provincial leaders. Foreign relations of China. Military history of China before and People's Liberation Army. Economic history of China —present.

Income inequality in China. Internationalization of the renminbi. Science and technology in China , Chinese space program , List of Chinese discoveries , and List of Chinese inventions.

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